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Diversity Training

Student Research Poster Presentation

bacp National Research Conference 2010


‘What personal and professional impact has experiential diversity issues training had on the development of our peers during counsellor training, specifically in relation to the development of clinical practice?’

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Ese Agambi
Carey Buchanan
Maria Nakabugo
Molle Elizabeth Roberts


Introduction

Experiential Diversity Training was defined within our Counsellor Training Programme and within this research project as:

“A specific and imbedded aspect of counsellor training which focuses on the intra and interpersonal experiential exploration of the obvious/known and/or the latent or ‘unconscious’ fears, prejudices, stereotypical views and beliefs we hold in relation to human diversity; which participating individuals (including tutors) may have inherited or absorbed from significant others, society itself or from any other distorted life experience. This training also explores the impact of belonging to either an ‘oppressed’ or an ‘oppressor group’ and how we can minimise the impact of such ‘isms’ within our psychotherapeutic practice through the development of conscious awareness and personal and interpersonal honesty and open discourse.” (Brown, 2009)

Our research project focussed on the personal and professional impact this experiential diversity training had on the development of our peers during our counsellor training; specifically in relation to race and cultural issues and the development of sound and effective trans-racial/cultural clinical practice.

Aim/Purpose

Recent meta-research has illuminated that culturally sensitive counsellor training programmes deepen trainees’ understanding of difference; which has proven to have a positive impact on how Black/People of Colour experience ethnically different counsellors (Cooper, 2008). Therefore, the aim/purpose of our research was to explore and define how the Experiential Diversity Training our counsellor training group received impacted on the personal and professional development of our peers; specifically in relation to their clinical practice. We were particularly interested to discover if the nature and the depth of such training was also relevant.

Literature Search

Our literature search led us to discover that there is little specific published information in existence pertaining to experiential diversity training. However, we found there is considerable published material on race and cultural issues in general and how these issues explicitly relate to counselling and counsellor training.

Mckenzie-Mavinga gives us a clear definition of the Black Issues landscape in the UK, stating this to be:

“issues pertaining to people of colour of African and Asian heritage who may be subject to minority oppression and racism in Britain – the most visible minority and the least represented in the field of psychotherapy and counselling.” (Mckenzie-Mavinga, 2009)

She points out that in Britain the term Black is used in a unifying way for people to positively identify and bond in the wake of shared experiences of racism. However, she also states that the grouping together of a particular group or groups of people increases the potential for stereotyping. Additionally she illuminates:

“Furthermore, ‘black’ in psychotherapeutic language has mainly been referred to as a colour or an image linked to the dark, negative, depressive, shadow side of the psyche”. (ibid)

Mckenzie-Mavinga continues by adding that this negative stereotyping has had an adverse impact on society as a whole. In fact she states this has encouraged institutionalised racism and further highlights:

“Not knowing how to undermine institutional racism has been a long-term concern for counselling organisations and individual practitioners.” (ibid)

During her research Mckenzie-Mavinga held a series of workshops on racial and cultural diversity with trainee counsellors in which she encouraged participants to voice their concerns*. These workshops resulted in a mixture of responses from respondents which included a willingness to participate, compliance, resistance, curiosity, fear, denial and anger. The outcome for participants in relation to their clinical practice appeared to be:

“Firstly, they seem to have gained a heightened awareness of their own personal identities and cultural oppressions. Secondly, they are overcoming their fears of having a dialogue about black issues with both black and white peers and their clients. These challenges have heightened opportunities for working with the cultural and racial elements in their practice.” (ibid)

Pinton tells us of Najeha Majed who was a psychodynamic counsellor in training. Nejeha was struggling to work with clients from her own cultural background who hugged and kissed her, a common Arabic greeting, when arriving for their counselling sessions. Najeha explored this with her supervisor who was white British.

“I explained this to my supervisor who said that I was crossing a boundary. I tried to explain to her that these people do not understand these things but in the end I felt I couldn’t carry on working with her.” (Pinton, 2004)

*The nature of these workshops appeared to us to fall within our working definition of Experiential Diversity Training.

Still with the view to processing her clinical difficulties, Najeha then found a different supervisor who was from a non-British cultural background; the result was she discovered:

“Being a blank screen is not always appropriate, something that I was not aware of in my previous training.” (Pinton, 2004)

Lago & Thompson (1996) state that cultural diversity training for counsellors is vital for there are many varied ways in which cultural norms and experience affect human interaction. For example, cultural dissimilarities can impact on a person’s use of interpersonal space; which will be influenced by the individuals’ understanding of social norms in relation to how close one should stand next to another. This may then lead to feelings of discomfort to those for whom it is usual to stand close together if engaging in conversation with someone who’s cultural experience is to stand further apart (and visa versa).

Other non-verbal behaviour is also often affected by cultural differences:

“The British use eye contact as a sign of listening behaviour. Research in the United States has demonstrated that many American Black people listen with their ears and look elsewhere, which proved disconcerting for White speakers who considered they had not been heard.” (Lago & Thompson, 1996)

Verbal communication may be very expressively different and may have dissimilar connotations. For example, the verbal minimal encouragers used by most counsellors; our ‘umms, ahhs’, and ‘ahah’s’, can have a very different culturally meaning to our clients than the one we intend to convey. The use of language and the idiosyncratic use of metaphor may also be very different depending on the client’s cultural background. For example:

“Follow fashion monkey never drink good soup (West Indian)”
(Taylor-Muhammad, 2001)

“If God serves you rice in a basket, do not wish to eat soup (African)” (ibid)
or
“The rice is boiled (Chinese)” (Yu, 1992)

The equivalent English expressions might be:

“It’s mutton dressed as lamb”

However, this was also interpreted, by a peer, as meaning:

“If you merely follow trends you don’t get nourished well”

“Don’t waste time wishing for what you can’t have”

or

“His goose is cooked”

As exampled above the implicit cultural meaning of such sayings may be lost in comparison. The importance of developing an awareness and understanding of such culturally distinctive adages, which are used to express specific ideas or values, is often overlooked in the counsellor training context.

Another factor which can be affected by cultural difference is the understanding of time. This leads us to an, as yet, unanswered question:

“How valid and useful is the ‘psychotherapeutic hour’, which is rooted in westocentric values, to those clients whose understanding and utilisation of time differs from our own?”

Research has also shown that numerous trainee counsellors become disillusioned with their training in relation to difference and diversity. The following quote typifies the feelings expressed by many:

“(in relation to diversity issues) … these were somehow ‘added on’, and then put aside rather than kept as ‘live’ issues to be integrated into the teaching and value base of the training. The emphasis was very much centred on skills development and understanding the counselling process in terms of theory which was mainly psychodynamic.” (Tran, 2004)

Often people of colour who are in counselling training become fearful of the potential impact this may have on their identity. Taylor-Smith clearly examples this:

“… becoming a counsellor was a potential challenge to my understanding of how I see myself. I was fearful that becoming a counsellor might conflict with my blackness. I needed assurance that becoming a counsellor would expand what it meant to me to be Black – that I would experience a welcoming of diversity from the course community.” (Taylor-Smith, 2004)

However, to Taylor-Smith’s above quoted trainee it seemed that her tutors’ behaviour changed whenever the black students wanted to raise the issue of racial or cultural difference:

“I believe that their personal fears and anxieties around issues of race negatively affected their responses in discussions. The course curriculum addressed some of the issues of racial and cultural difference in the social context element of the course … What I felt was missing was an informed discussion about practice, supervision, and professionalism by counsellors in training, led by the course tutors, regarding issues of race and cultural difference.” (Taylor-Smith, 2004)

The empirically researched evidence suggests that in our psychotherapeutic system, rooted in and dominated by westernised views, which ignore the cultural, traditional, the ethnic folklore and values of non western trainees, places such trainees at a heavy disadvantage. Taylor-Muhammad illuminates this movingly:

“In an act of courage, I expressed aspects of my struggle, which appeared to have the effect of unsettling the group and making it feel very unsafe indeed … I was fortunate to survive, or rather, approaching the end of the certificate year, to find a black therapist who understood some of my difficulties.” (Taylor –Muhammad, 2004)

In his recent research work Cooper highlights that the general pragmatic evidence appears to demonstrate that counsellor training which includes diversity training, does improve a counsellor’s ability to work trans-racially/culturally (Cooper, 2008). However, the empirical research findings we cite above seem to strongly suggest to us that as a profession we still have a long way to go in developing truly effective abilities in our trans-racial/cultural endeavours as counsellors/psychotherapists; in all our professional roles.

Methodology

After careful consideration and because we intended to engage in a research project in which respondents’ personal experiences were central, epistemological and ontological reasoning (McLeod, 2201) appeared to dictate that our research needed to be conducted by employing the phenomenological approach.

We applied the Duquesne Method of Empirical Phenomenology revised by Moustakas, (1994), following his six suggested methodological steps:

  1. Collect written data from the participants which describe their experience.
  2. Evaluate and identify the common themes imbedded in this data.
  3. Highlight the various themes.
  4. Disregard any material which is irrelevant or does not illuminate the phenomenon being researched.
  5. Identify the common themes; collective issues - but also include individual and singular experiences.
  6. Illuminate and fully describe the phenomenon.

The central intention in phenomenological research can be defined as the illumination of a specific phenomenon through how it is perceived by those having
experienced the event. The outcome of phenomenological research is to coherently illustrate, highlight and describe the phenomenon through how it is recounted and understood by those involved. Individual experiences play a major role in phenomenology, in particular personal perspectives and experiential knowledge

In relation to human experience:

“… this normally translates into gathering deep information and perceptions through inductive, qualitative methods such as interviews, discussions and participant observation, and representing it from the perspective of the research participants.” (Plummer, 1983)

It is important to highlight that although this approach does not test hypothesis, it does draw conclusions and helps formulate ideas.

We audio recorded and transcribed the responses of fifteen peer respondents in a series of semi-structured interviews. Descriptive generalisations were then drawn as to the impact experiential diversity training had on respondents’ personal and professional development, and specifically in relation to their clinical practice.

Our research project also followed the guidelines set out by Bond (2004) for conducting ethical research in counselling and psychotherapy. And as this was a research project carried out in relation to peer experiences we paid special attention to ensure that our identifications and possible transferences did not lead us to fall into ‘researcher treachery’; an un-ethical distortion or deletion of data (Plummer, 1983).

Research Findings

Overview

Our research findings strongly appear to demonstrate that the experiential diversity training our respondents received had a positive impact on their personal and professional development, and in relation to increasing their confidence in offering effective transracial/cultural clinical practice.

Three major themes emerged in the analysis and evaluation of our data. The diversity training, it seems, had the effect of:

  • Increasing individual self awareness regarding difference and diversity.
  • Respondents seem now able to demonstrate a clearer understanding of what human diversity actually means and its effect on practice.
  • It opened-up individuals within the training group to discussion and more honest intra and intrapersonal communication on human difference.

The Emerging Themes Inherent In Our Data:

Suppression and Reawakening

For many of the Black/People of Colour there was a sense of reawakening and a rising out of experiences and feelings which had been suppressed. It also gave these participants the opportunity to process such experiences and feelings, which in turn led to greater clarity and self-understanding.

Example Respondent Responses:

“It reawakened a lot of the thoughts, experiences and actions I had put at the back of my mind. It disturbed me on various levels – very much like waking up”.

“…I was reawakened/reminded to be more self aware”.

“ I think that I had suppressed the importance of my blackness”.

“It brought back experiences that I had suppressed and also allowed me
to process these feelings and where they come from”.

Another passionate participant disclosed;

“… It had a massive impact on me. For one week during our training we had to train in our own racial groups. Being someone of mixed race and culture this was the first time this had ever happened to me, it gave me time to look at my own issues around my identity of self and the impact that we have on our children. I had previously done a group project which had helped me get over my fear of Islam and helped me to regain contact with my dad after thirteen years. So it (the training session being described) was very exciting for me yet a little frightening going into the unknown. It also allowed me to share in others experience of being mixed race as this can cover such a wide range of people and their views of self. It (the training session being described) was done in a dramatherapy kind of way which enabled me to be free and open when I came back to the whole group and we all spoke about our experiences, it was clear that some people from the other racial groups found it very hard to understand as well (duel racial identity). But having this experience really brought it home for me”.

Awakening and White Awareness

It appears that for the white respondents the training provided them with the opportunity to really listen to others who are racially and culturally different, it awakened an awareness of their lack of understanding in relation to difference and highlighted how they might be perceived by others because they are white skinned.

Example Respondent Responses:

“It gave me a deeper awareness of many diversity issues and I was very moved to hear personal stories”

“I learnt about the struggle other races had to endure. For example such as the Irish experience I became aware how little I know about other races, cultures, and communities”.

“It has forced and encouraged me to look deeper into myself – experientially and emotionally – whereas before I just understood things intellectually”.

“It made me very aware of how others may perceive me as being based on the colour of my skin and the expectations that people may have of me”.

Awareness and Understanding of Diversity and Difference Grew in Individuals

Respondents reported and demonstrated an enhanced awareness of the importance of acknowledging diversity both intra and interpersonally. Respondents also disclosed gaining a greater awareness of their personal prejudices and the impact these might have on society as a whole, on their personal and professional relationships and in the counselling alliances they form with clients.

Example Respondent Responses:

“The training made me more aware of my own prejudices and encouraged me to review my position within my personal environment and society…the training helped me to have a better understanding of my colleagues”.

“.....it brings a greater understanding for me personally and a greater understanding for me in a counselling relationship.”

“I am more aware of how I enter the counsellor space and the effect I may have on my clients…I am aware of my whiteness and pre-conceptions that I may make”.

“I got a bigger understanding of diversity and how it could impact on the counselling alliance, both for the counsellor and client”.

“It has made me more aware of diversity and lack thereof in organisations I’m involved in. And more aware of my colour as a potential barrier,
or as an opposite to clients”.

“The training helped me, I think, to have a better understanding of my colleagues”.

“I have not directly encountered any racism or sexism but by hearing other people’s experiences and stories has definitely opened my eyes to how we all deal with situations”.

“I gained awareness of other racial groups and their experience. Seeing it first hand was a very powerful experience”.

The Impact on Group Dynamics

Whilst there were varied responses in relation to the impact the experiential diversity training had on the training group and group dynamics, respondents generally felt that the group was enlightened, empowered and strengthened.

Example Respondent Responses:

“The training seemed to empower some members of the group and this did cause some conflict. However, the training enlightened the group as a whole.”

“Somehow I felt empowered. It was great being in a group where I was not merely a minority. It was interesting rejoining the group and still feeling that the
minority occupied the centre.”

“I think the training both challenged and strengthened the group’s dynamics. Giving us the opportunity to explore diverse aspects of ourselves that may not be instantly obvious.”

“There was tension within the bigger group before the training and there has been tension since so it is difficult to know whether the training caused any more (tension) than normal…I do remember the group wanting to bond and get closer together during community after the training as it had shaken us up a lot. I think therefore the training (specifically the experiential diversity training) had a positive effect on the group dynamics”.

“At times the debates became very heated and there was transference onto me and from me onto others. Through willingness to share honestly within the group, feeling safe enough to share their fears and prejudices I feel we all emerged stronger and more accepting of diversity and cultural difference. I certainly benefited a great deal and other group members commented on the change in me.”

However, a very small number of respondents felt that the training left unresolved issues to be explored.

Example Respondent Response:

“Superficially, everything seems fine. But I suspect there are undercurrents which have not yet been explored.”

The Impact of Segregation on Group Dynamics

It appeared to be difficult for a few respondents to identify the value of the learning experience of being split into racial groups for one session of the diversity training.

Example Respondent Response:

“Separation – some peers did not feel they belonged in any of the race or culture groups we were looking into – it was hard.”

Yet for most respondents, whilst there were perhaps initial fears present in relation to the segregation process within the diversity training experience, ultimately it appeared to contribute to the group becoming stronger as a whole.

Example Respondent Response:

“I found segregation uncomfortable, because of a fear that it would accentuate and open up divides based on ethnicity. Which I didn’t feel overtly present before. However, the whole experience was well facilitated, and I feel it contributed to the group becoming stronger as a whole.”

The Emerging Impact on the Counselling Alliance, Practice, and in the Workplace

In terms of the relationship between counsellor and client it emerged from our data that the diversity training helped respondents to feel more able to work with clients who are racially and culturally diverse. It also appears respondents became less afraid of difference.

Example Respondent Responses:

“… it has opened my awareness of many different cultures and how to look at this as a person, and as a counsellor it’s ok to ask and check out with our clients if you don’t understand. It has become clear to me in working with others from different colleges at supervision, how important my diversity training has been, for it has been pointed out a number of times that I show a large awareness of the implications of not taking into consideration peoples’ race or cultural beliefs”.

“… the training (diversity training) did make me think much more about how I handle diversity with my clients since. It made me realise our differences more, rather than thinking we are really the same.”

It also seemed that the diversity training helped reduce stereotypical views of difference.

Example Respondent Responses:

“It has made me aware of the difference between people and how the experience of others can affect the dynamics of the counselling relationship. It also made me aware people have different experiences regardless of colour.”

“I became more aware of how clients from even the same race may present themselves in counselling as different or set themselves apart from others of the same race”.

Respondents also felt the diversity training had impacted on their views and abilities in the general workplace.

Example Respondent Responses:

“Diversity is a major buzzword in the workplace these days so I am aware that the training will find many applications as I become more professionally developed. Also this training will help me to be more attuned and empathic of individual differences which I feel is a very valuable skill”

“......I was aware again that I was the only Black Head of Department/Faculty in the school, the only BLACK FEMALE/BLACK PERSON in a senior position in the third largest school in England. I felt the responsibility of my position.”

However, such developed awareness of diversity issues and the ability of a white individual to own the inherited racism* he/she has become aware of, may result in such individuals being ‘attacked’ by others with perhaps appreciably less understanding.

One respondent described what happen at his Practice Placement

“The issue of diversity surfaced during bereavement training when two of the players in a role play activity were black. I was the only person prepared to talk about my inherited racism and how this influenced my listening. The result of my disclosure led me to being attacked by my colleagues for actually being a racist”.

Increased Empathy

A number of white respondents reported that the experiential diversity training helped them to empathise more fully with their clients.

This is typified by one research participant’s disclosure:

“…it made me more aware of the importance of empathy and helped me to try and ‘walk in someone else’s shoes’. I realised more the hardships which many non-

*Inherited Racism; the views, prejudices and unconscious expectation of privileges introjected into white individuals by significant care takers and society itself.
SEE: Wray, Amanda. ""Inherited Racism: White Practice (or Performance) of Colorblind Racial Script"" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Women's Studies Association, Millennium Hotel, Cincinnati, OH, Jun 18, 2008 <Not Available>. 2010-03-12 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p232391_index.html

“white people have gone through and the majority of my clients have been non-white. So the training did make me think much more about how I handle diversity with my clients. I have become more confident in bringing our difference into the room or asking my clients what it’s like talking to a white woman-I’m no longer scared of asking or what the answer may be.”

Discussion and Hypotheses

Our research findings strongly appear to demonstrate that the experiential diversity training our respondents received had a positive impact on their personal and professional development, and in relation to increasing their confidence in offering effective transracial/cultural clinical practice.

Three major themes emerged in the analysis and evaluation of our data. The experiential diversity training, it seems, had the effect of:

  • Increasing individual self awareness regarding difference and diversity
  • Respondents seem now able to demonstrate a clearer understanding of what human diversity actually means and its effect on practice
  • It opened-up individuals within the training group to discussion and more honest intra and intrapersonal communication on human difference

The specific themes emerging from our data also robustly indicated that:

For many of the Black/People of Colour there was a sense of reawakening and a rising out of experiences and feelings which had been suppressed. It also gave these participants the opportunity to process such experiences and feelings, which in turn led to greater clarity and self-understanding.

It appears that for white respondents the training provided them with the opportunity to really listen to others who are racially and culturally different, it awakened an awareness of their lack of understanding in relation to difference and highlighted how they might be perceived by others because they are white skinned.

Respondents reported and demonstrated an enhanced awareness of the importance of acknowledging diversity both intra and interpersonally. Respondents also disclosed gaining a greater awareness of their personal prejudices and the impact these might have on society as a whole, on their personal and professional relationships and in the counselling alliances they form with clients.

Whilst there were varied responses in relation to the impact the experiential diversity training had on the training group and group dynamics, respondents generally felt that the group was enlightened, empowered and strengthened. However, a small number of respondents felt that the training left unresolved issues to be explored.

However, it appeared to be difficult for a few respondents to identify the value of the learning experience of being split into racial groups for one session of the diversity training. Yet for most respondents, whilst there were perhaps initial fears present in relation to the segregation process within the diversity training experience, ultimately it appeared to contribute to the group becoming stronger as a whole.

In terms of the relationship between counsellor and client it emerged from our data that the diversity training helped respondents to feel more able to work with clients who are racially and culturally diverse. It also appears respondents became less fearful of difference and it also seemed that the diversity training helped reduce stereotypical views of difference.

Respondents also felt the diversity training had impacted on their views and abilities in the general workplace. However, such developed awareness of diversity issues and the ability of a white individual to own the inherited racism he/she has become aware of may result in such individuals being ‘attacked’ by others with perhaps appreciably less understanding.

It appears that the training also increased empathic understanding, as a number of white respondents reported that the experiential diversity training helped them to empathise more fully with their Black/People of Colour peers and clients.

Therefore, it seems reasonable to hypothesise that when intrapersonal fears and defences in relation to difference can be reduced, due to experiential diversity training, then greater interpersonal understanding and communication can ensue. This seems to take place because:

  • Black/People of Colour have the opportunity to ‘reawaken’; rise out of, and express their suppressed experiences and feelings in relation to racism and do this in mixed racial and cultural company.
  • White people appear to be able to ‘awaken’ to their lack of understanding in relation to human diversity and racism. They also appear able to connect with how they may be perceived because they are white. They also appear to be able to openly discuss racial and cultural difference freely.
  • Intrapersonal prejudices are acknowledged and discussed more freely, which leads to yet greater inter-racial communication and the further reduction of prejudice and fear.
  • Giving racial groups the opportunity to work in facilitated segregated groups for a period of time to discuss group relevant experiences and issues – seems ultimately to help bridge inter-racial and cultural divides; which also appears to lead to empowerment for all parties.
  • Confidence and empathic understanding increases and fear continues to decrease.

It seems that all the above leads to a considerably enhanced ability to work effectively in transracial/cultural psychotherapeutic alliances.
As a result of our findings we would like to suggest that there is sufficient empirical evidence to postulate that:

Counsellor trainers need to ensure that diversity training is not simply ‘tacked on to’ the general training remit – but is embraced as an intrinsic and imbedded experiential aspect of the counsellor trainees’ journey toward becoming an effective practitioner. Furthermore, we suggest that all qualified practitioners might benefit from engaging in on-going Continued Professional Development Training in relation to Experiential Diversity Training in order to address their own issues in relation to, and continually deepen their understanding of human racial and cultural diversity.

We also tentatively hypothesise that:

Experiential Diversity Training might provide a way forward in addressing Institutionalised Racism, because our findings seem to suggest that if intrapersonal consciousness is altered this improves and enhances interpersonal awareness and understanding, reduces the apparent fear inherent in engaging more fully with human diversity and opens up individuals to look more fully at their prejudices and stereotypical views.

Conclusion

Therefore, in conclusion we would like to reiterate that it seems reasonable to hypothesise that when intrapersonal fears and defences in relation to difference can be reduced, due to experiential diversity training, then greater interpersonal understanding and communication can ensue. This seems to take place because:

  • Black/People of Colour have the opportunity to ‘reawaken’; rise out of, and express their suppressed experiences and feelings in relation to racism and do this in mixed racial and cultural company.
  • White people appear to be able to ‘awaken’ to their lack of understanding in relation to human diversity and racism. They also appear able to connect with how they may be perceived because they are white. They also appear to be able to openly discuss racial and cultural difference freely.
  • Intrapersonal prejudices are acknowledged and discussed more freely, which leads to yet greater inter-racial communication and the further reduction of prejudice and fear.
  • Giving racial groups the opportunity to work in facilitated segregated groups for a period of time to discuss group relevant experiences and issues – seems ultimately to help bridge inter-racial and cultural divides; which also appears to lead to empowerment for all parties.
  • Empathic understanding increases and fear continues to decrease.

It seems that all the above leads to a considerably enhanced ability to work effectively in transracial/cultural psychotherapeutic alliances.

As a result of our findings we would like to suggest that there is sufficient empirical evidence to postulate that:

Counsellor trainers need to ensure that diversity training is not simply ‘tacked on to’ the general training remit – but is embraced as an intrinsic and imbedded experiential aspect of the counsellor trainees’ journey toward becoming an effective practitioner. Furthermore, we suggest that all qualified practitioners might benefit from engaging in on-going Continued Professional Development Training in relation to Experiential Diversity Training in order to address their own issues in relation to, and continually deepen their understanding of human racial and cultural diversity.

We also tentatively hypothesise that:

Experiential Diversity Training might provide a way forward in addressing Institutionalised Racism, because our findings seem to suggest that if intrapersonal consciousness is altered this improves and enhances interpersonal awareness and understanding, reduces the apparent fear inherent in engaging more fully with human diversity and opens up individuals to look more fully at their prejudices and stereotypical views.

Further Research

We advocate further research takes place to:

  • Fully explore and test the hypotheses we present in our above conclusion.
  • Fully explore if the ‘therapeutic hour’ is as valid and useful to clients from non-western cultures, as it appears to be for those clients whose use of time is westocentric.

References

Bond, Tim, 2004,
‘Bacp Guidelines for Researching Counselling & Psychotherapy’,
www.bacp

Brown, Chris, 2009,
www.lcandcta.co.uk
Home Page

Cooper, Mick, 2008,
‘Essential Research Findings in Counselling and Psychotheraphy: The Facts are Friendly’,
BACP

Lago, Colin, and Thompson, Joyce, M, 1996,
‘Race, Culture and Counselling’,
McGraw – Hill Education

McLeod, John, 2001,
‘Qualitative Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy’,
Sage Publications

Mckenzie-Mavinga, Isha, 2009,
‘Black Issues in the Therapeutic Process’’,
Palgrave Macmillan

Moustakas, C, (1994),
‘Phenomenological Research Methods’,
London, Sage

Pinton, C, 2004,
‘Does our Training Embrace Difference and Diversity?’,
CPJ October 2004,
BACP

Plummer, K, 1983,
‘Documents of Life: an introduction to the problems and literature of a humanistic method’,
London, Unwin Hyman

Taylor-Muhammad, Foluke, 2001
‘Follow Fashion Monkey Never Drink Good Soup – Black Cousellors and the Road to Inclusion’,
CJP July 2001,
BACP

Taylor-Smith, Hylda , 2004,
‘The Consequences of Clarity’ in Davies, VH (ed) ‘Experiences of Counsellor Training’,
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Tran, Van-Ahn, 2004,
‘Picking up the Gauntlet’ in Davies, VH (ed) ‘Experiences of Counsellor Training’,
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan

Wray, Amanda, 2008,
"Inherited Racism: White Practice (or Performance) of Colorblind Racial Script",
Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Women's Studies Association, Millennium Hotel, Cincinnati, OH, Jun 18, 2008 <Not Available>. 2010-03-12 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p232391_index.html

Yu, Chen, 1992,
‘The Rice is Boiled’,
Boyu Publishing, London

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